The link between TA and other languages for FAM and FREQ suggests that the images and their names are equally familiar to Tunisian and other language speakers. IMA and NA appear to be the most culturally and language-influenced variables in our TA database, as they both have the lowest correlations with standards in the other three languages. In other words, it seems that the ability to generate names for objects represented by images (na) or mental images for object names (IMA) depends heavily on language. This is consistent with similar comparisons in previous normative studies, where it is proven that NA is most affected by cultural differences (Alario-Ferrand, 1999). Dell`Acqua et al., 2000; Manoiloff et al., 2010; Sanfeliu – Fernandez, 1996). Barry, C., Morrison, C.M., Ellis, A. W. (1997). Names of Snodgrass and Vanderwart images: effects of age of use, frequency and naming agreement. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 50A, 560-585. doi:10.1080/783663595 Nominative Convention (NA) refers to the degree of variability of the names given to the image on the participants. An image that gets the same name from most subjects must have a high NA, and an image that produces several different names has a low NA.
This variable was found to be the leading latency predictor in image rankings (e.g.B. Alario et al., 2004; Ellis and Morrison, 1998; Gilhooly – Gilhooly, 1980; Lachman, Shaffer, Hennrikus, 1974; Valente, Burki, Laganaro, 2014; Vitkovitch – Tyrrell, 1995). Images that cause different names take longer to be named, due to the lexical competition that occurs between different alternatives (Barry et al., 1997; Cuetos et al., 1999). Two possible loci of the NA effect were identified based on the cause of low UN. If a low match is caused by misidentification of the images, then the location may be at the structural coding level, i.e. in the detection phase of the object. However, if the variance in NA is the result of the availability of different correct names for the same object, low NA may exert its influence in the selection of lemma (Barry et al., 1997; Cuetos et al., 1999; Vitkovitch – Tyrrell, 1995). Low NA images activate more Lemmas than high-NA images, resulting in longer wait times for one of the potential candidates to select. The correspondence agreements. The conclusion of the letter to amend or renew an existing agreement should not relate to the agreement in question, since the amended or extended agreement would be defined in the first sentence. In the IMA task, participants evaluated the imagery of 348 image names – the ease with which a particular word generated a mental image – on a scale of 7 dots, 1 – one word represented on a word and 7 – one word easily and quickly (Desrochers – Thompson, 2009).